The San and Khoe group of people that can be found in southern Africa today are actually remnants of much larger population that used to be the only group situated there before the arrival of Bantu-speaking groups in the past 1,200 years and sea-borne immigrants within the last 350 years. Majority of these people were hunter gatherers and cattle herders and have for the most part, kept this lifestyle to the present day. Their language is unique as it incorporates various click consonants (clicking sounds, such as tsk pronounced in English language when expressing disapproval, that serve as consonants). While these groups are fascinating from historical and linguistic perspective, this article will focus on their genetic structure, which is just as interesting. The Khoisan populations (Khoisan is a joint term used to refer to both groups) are relatively small
and yet exhibit a wide variety Y-chromosomal and mtDNA diversity. Many of the Y-DNA and mtDNA lineages observed
are quite rare and diversity within lineages themselves possibly dates more than 50.000 years ago. A study has found that
these populations have high frequency of the oldest mtDNA haplogroups (L0d and L0k) and Y-chromosome haplogroups (haplogroups A and B) (Henn et al,2011).
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